Stanley milgram research paper
Due to concerns about the amount of anxiety experienced by many of the participants, everyone was debriefed at the end of the experiment. The researchers explained the procedures and the use of deception. However, many critics of the study have argued that many of the participants were still confused about the exact nature of the experiment. Milgram later surveyed the participants and found that 84 percent were glad to have participated while only 1 percent regretted their involvement.
Why did so many of the participants in this experiment perform a seemingly sadistic act when instructed by an authority figure?
According to Milgram, there are some situational factors that can explain such high levels of obedience:. Later experiments conducted by Milgram indicated that the presence of rebellious peers dramatically reduced obedience levels. When other people refused to go along with the experimenter's orders, 36 out of 40 participants refused to deliver the maximum shocks. Moreover, even when the destructive effects of their work become patently clear, and they are asked to carry out actions incompatible with fundamental standards of morality, relatively few people have the resources needed to resist authority," Milgram explained in "Obedience to Authority.
The research suggests that situational variables have a stronger sway than personality factors in determining obedience. However, other psychologists argue that both external and internal factors heavily influence obedience, such as personal beliefs and overall temperament. In , researchers conducted a study designed to replicate Milgram's classic obedience experiment. Yet because Milgram's procedures are clearly out-of-bounds by today's ethical standards, many questions about the research have gone unanswered.
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Chief among these is one that inevitably surfaces when I present Milgram's findings to students: Would people still act that way today? The results of the new experiment revealed that participants obeyed at the same rate that they did when Milgram conducted his original study more than 40 years ago. The January issue of American Psychologist also contained discussion from other psychologists about the possible comparisons between Milgram's experiment and Burger's study. According to Arthur G. Miller, Ph.
Stanley Milgram Essay
However, Alan C. Elms, Ph. Elms pointed out that while "direct comparisons of absolute levels of obedience cannot be made between the volt maximum of Burger's research design and Milgram's volt maximum, Burger's "obedience lite" procedures can be used to explore further some of the situational variables studied by Milgram as well as to look at additional variables," such as situational and personality differences. Psychologist Gina Perry suggests that much of what we think we know about Milgram's famous experiments is only part of the story.
While researching an article on the topic, she stumbled across hundreds of audiotapes found in Yale archives that documented numerous variations of Milgram's shock experiments. While Milgram's reports of his process report methodical and uniform procedures, the audiotapes reveal something different. During the experimental sessions, the experimenters often went off-script and coerced the subjects into continuing the shocks. Milgram's experiments have long been the source of considerable criticism and controversy.
From the get-go, the ethics of his experiments were highly dubious.
Participants were subjected to significant psychological and emotional distress. Milgram suggested that the subjects were "de-hoaxed" after the experiments.
Milgram Experiment : Milgram 's Experiment
However, Perry's findings revealed that of the or so people who took part in different variations of his studies between and , very few were truly debriefed. A true debriefing would have involved explaining that the shocks weren't real and that the other person was not injured.
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Instead, Milgram's sessions were mainly focused on calming the subjects down before sending them on their way. Many left in a state of considerable distress. While the truth was revealed to some months or even years later, many were simply never told a thing. Another problem is that the version of the study presented by Milgram and the one that's most often retold does not tell the whole story. The statistic that 65 percent of people obeyed orders applied only to one variation of the experiment, in which 26 out of 40 subjects obeyed. In other variations, far fewer people were willing to follow the experimenters' orders and in some versions of the study, not a single participant obeyed.
Perry even tracked down some of the people who took part in the experiments as well as Milgram's research assistants. What she discovered is that many of his subjects had deduced what Milgram's intent was and knew that the "learner" was merely pretending. Such findings cast Milgram's results in a new light.
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It suggests that not only did Milgram intentionally engage in some hefty misdirection to obtain the results he wanted but that many of his participants were simply playing along. Perry later explained to NPR that retracing the steps of Milgram's research upended her attitudes and beliefs about one of the most famous and controversial figures in psychology. More recent work by researchers suggests that while people do tend to obey authority figures, the process is not necessarily as cut-and-dry as Milgram depicted it. In a essay published in PLoS Biology , psychologists Alex Haslam and Stephen Reicher suggested the degree to which people are willing to obey the questionable orders of an authority figure depends largely on two key factors:.
While it is clear that people are often far more susceptible to influence , persuasion , and obedience than they would often like to be, they are far from mindless machines just taking orders. So why does Milgram's experiment maintain such a powerful hold on our imaginations, even decades after the fact?
Perry believes that despite all its ethical issues and the problem of never truly being able to replicate Milgram's procedures, the study has taken on the role of what she calls a "powerful parable. Milgram's work might not hold the answers to what makes people obey or even the degree to which they truly obey. It has, however, inspired other researchers to explore what makes people follow orders and, perhaps more importantly, what leads them to question authority. Ever wonder what your personality type means? Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter.
More in Psychology. The physical presence of an authority figure dramatically increased compliance. The fact that Yale a trusted and authoritative academic institution sponsored the study led many participants to believe that the experiment must be safe. Why do the majority of the country follow or obey the rules? This is the question that the Milgram Experiment is trying to solve.
The Milgram Experiment involves two people a teacher and a student. The teach is asked to give the electric shocks to the students. The experiment is trying to figure out what will cause the teacher to disobey. When the teachers were asked about why. The experiment undertaken by Stanley Milgram in was supposed to answer some questions about obedience and raised some questions and answered some.
At the time, that Milgram underwent the experiment, a Nazi war criminal was being trialed. Milgram wanted this experiment to answer whether this Nazi criminal and his followers were just accomplices to Hitler during the Holocaust or did they have some responsibility to it as well. The experiment went like this: there were three positions. Milgram Experiment Research Paper In , Stanley Milgram, a psychologist at Yale University, conducted a controversial experiment on the conflict between obedience to authority and personal conscience. Milgram Experiment, Simply Psychology. The procedure.
Was the Milgram Experiment Ethical or Valid? This experiment has encountered intense scrutiny ever since its findings were first published in ; many people question the ethics and validity of the experiment. Multitudes of researchers have taken it upon themselves to determine the answers to the questions McLeod.
The Nazi killing was brutal and inhumane but the people conflicting death upon thousands felt no remorse or guilt so the Milgram Experiment was used to finally get answers. Milgram concluded that many will go to extreme lengths to obey authority and tend to believe what they are doing is the good or right thing to do because it is their order. The Nazi killing was brutal and inhumane, but the people conflicting death upon thousands felt no remorse or guilt so the Milgram Experiment was used to finally get answers.
Milgram concluded that many will go to extreme lengths to obey authority and tend to believe what they are doing is. Introduction This report will compare two experiments; Asch 's conformity experiment and Milgram 's obedience experiment.
The two experiments will be compared for validity and their ethics. In addition, this report will take into consideration Zimbardo 's Stanford Prison experiment and the Lucifer Effect.
Decades Later, Still Asking: Would I Pull That Switch?
To analyse how obedience and conformity theories can be used as an example of why good people can turn bad. This report will also look at how obedience and conformity can be applied to the criminal. Each of the two experiments carried out by Milgram and Zimbardo had questionable ethics in their procedure. In psychology, ethics are moral guidelines when conducting social experiments such as these, so that the dignity of each participant is respected and preserved.
Milgram selected male participants to be part of a learning study. He got people to be either the learner or the teacher. It was fixed that they were always the teacher. The teacher would shock the learner if they would get. Introduction Stanley Milgram was a Yale psychologist that is famous for conducting the obedience experiments in Milgram had conducted a series of experiments during the s that were related to obedience. The results of these experiments had demonstrated a disturbing yet powerful view into the power of authority that can exert from it some sort of obedience.
Milgram was inspired.
Milgram Experiment - Will People Do Anything If Ordered?
Moral psychologists, social psychologists, and sociologists have considered how different characteristics affect how the individual responds to authority: Does a group setting make a difference? Are certain personality traits an indicator of rebellion? Will the. Two prestigious psychologists, Stanley Milgram and Philip G. Zimbardo, conducted practical obedience experiments with astonishing results.
Shocked by the amount of immoral obedience, both doctors wrote articles exploring the reasoning for the test subjects ' unorthodox manners. Milgram 's experiment consisted of a teacher, learner, and experimenter:. The Milgram Experiment attempted to prove that in a situation that a person who feel trapped could even kill a person; the Stanford Prison Experiment showed society that a person can fall into a specific role they never been in, even if the participants knew what was going on in the experiment; lastly there is the Lucifer Effect which explains how good people turn bad.
These instances and explanations help prove that the power of a situation can change a person. The Milgram Experiment, performed.